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Studies and Citations


Kenareh R, Mirmohammadi SJ, Khatibi A, Shamsi F, Mehrparvar AH. The Comparison of The Efficacy of Photobiomodulation and Ultrasound in the Treatment of Chronic Non-specific Neck Pain: A Randomized Single-Blind Controlled Trial. Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences. 2021 ;12:e20. DOI: 10.34172/jlms.2021.20.

Acute Low Back Pain with Radiculopathy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

Ljubica M. Konstantinovic, Zeljko M. Kanjuh, Andjela N. Milovanovic, Milisav R. Cutovic, Aleksandar G. Djurovic, Viktorija G. Savic, Aleksandra S. Dragin, and Nesa D. Milovanovic

Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 2010 28:4, 553-560

  • A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
  • n=546
  • Statistically significant in all outcomes measured (p < 0.001)
  • Results show better improvement in acute LBP treated with LLLT 

Stausholm MB, Naterstad IF, Joensen J, et alEfficacy of low-level laser therapy on pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trialsBMJ Open 2019;9:e031142. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031142

  • Systematic review and meta-analysis
  • We solely included randomized placebo-controlled trials involving participants with KOA according to the American College of Rheumatology and/or Kellgren/Lawrence criteria, in which LLLT was applied to participants’ knee(s)
  • 22 trials (n=1063) were meta-analysed. Risk of bias was insignificant. Overall, pain was significantly reduced by LLLT compared with placebo at the end of therapy.
  • LLLT is a non-invasive treatment modality,(1-2) which has been reported to induce anti-inflammatory effects. (2–7)
    • 1. Rayegani SM, Raeissadat SA, Heidari S, et al. Safety and effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Lasers Med Sci 2017;8:S12–19.  
    • 2. Hamblin MR. Can osteoarthritis be treated with light? Arthritis Res Ther 2013;15.
    • 3. Tomazoni SS, Leal-Junior ECP, Pallotta RC, et al. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy, pharmacological therapy, and physical exercise as single and/or combined treatment on the inflammatory response induced by experimental osteoarthritis. Lasers Med Sci 2017;32:101–8. 
    • 4. Tomazoni SS, Leal-Junior ECP, Frigo L, et al. Isolated and combined effects of photobiomodulation therapy, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and physical activity in the treatment of osteoarthritis induced by papain. J Biomed Opt 2016;21:108001. 
    • 5. Wang P, Liu C, Yang X, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy on joint pain, synovitis, anabolic, and catabolic factors in a progressive osteoarthritis rabbit model. Lasers Med Sci 2014;29:1875–85. 
    • 6. Assis L, Almeida T, Milares LP, et al. Musculoskeletal atrophy in an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis: the effects of exercise training and low-level laser therapy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2015;94:609–16. 
    • 7. Pallotta RC, Bjordal JM, Frigo L, et al. Infrared (810-nm) low-level laser therapy on rat experimental knee inflammation. Lasers Med Sci 2012;27:71–8.

Brosseau L, Welch V, Wells G, Tugwell P, de Bie R, Gam A, Harman K, Shea B, Morin M. Low level laser therapy for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a metaanalysis. J Rheumatol. 2000 Aug;27(8):1961-9. PMID: 10955339.


Spitler R, Ho H, Norpetlian F, et al. Combination of low level light therapy and nitrosyl-cobinamide accelerates wound healing. J Biomed Opt. 2015;20(5):051022. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.051022

Whelan HT, Smits RL Jr, Buchman EV, Whelan NT, Turner SG, Margolis DA, Cevenini V, Stinson H, Ignatius R, Martin T, Cwiklinski J, Philippi AF, Graf WR, Hodgson B, Gould L, Kane M, Chen G, Caviness J. Effect of NASA light-emitting diode irradiation on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2001 Dec;19(6):305-14. doi: 10.1089/104454701753342758.

Whelan HT, Smits RL Jr, Buchman EV, et al. Effect of NASA light-emitting diode irradiation on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2001;19(6):305-314. doi:10.1089/104454701753342758.

Hartmann DD, Martins RP, Silva TCD, et al. Oxidative stress is involved in LLLT mechanism of action on skin healing in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2021;54(6):e10293. Published 2021 Apr 26. doi:10.1590/1414-431X202010293.

Quirk BJ, Sannagowdara K, Buchmann EV, et al. Effect of near-infrared light on in vitro cellular ATP production of osteoblasts and fibroblasts and on fracture healing with intramedullary fixation. J Clin Orthop Trauma 2016;7:234-41. 10.1016/j.jcot.2016.02.009.

José Carlos Tatmatsu-Rocha, et al. Low-level laser therapy (904nm) can increase collagen and reduce oxidative and nitrosative stress in diabetic wounded mouse skin, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 164, 2016, Pages 96-102, ISSN 1011-1344, doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.09.01.

Cotler HB. A NASA discovery has current applications in orthopaedics. Curr Orthop Pract. 2015 Jan;26(1):72-74. doi: 10.1097/BCO.0000000000000196. PMID: 25541589; PMCID: PMC4272231.


Hamblin MR. Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation. AIMS Biophys. 2017;4(3):337-361. doi:10.3934/biophy.2017.3.337 

Cardoso Fabrízio dos Santos, Salehpour Farzad, Coimbra Norberto Cysne, Gonzalez-Lima Francisco, Gomes da Silva Sérgio Photobiomodulation for the treatment of neuroinflammation: A systematic review of controlled laboratory animal studies Frontiers in Neuroscience. VOLUME=16      YEAR=2022 DOI=10.3389/fnins.2022.1006031 ISSN=1662-453X   


Hamblin MR, Nelson ST, Strahan JR. Photobiomodulation and Cancer: What Is the Truth? Photomed Laser Surg. 2018 May;36(5):241-245. doi: 10.1089/pho.2017.4401. Epub 2018 Feb 21. PMID: 29466089; PMCID: PMC5946726.

  • Conclusions: PBM therapy may have benefits in cancer patients and should be further investigated.

Robijns J, Nair RG, Lodewijckx J, Arany P, Barasch A, Bjordal JM, Bossi P, Chilles A, Corby PM, Epstein JB, Elad S, Fekrazad R, Fregnani ER, Genot MT, Ibarra AMC, Hamblin MR, Heiskanen V, Hu K, Klastersky J, Lalla R, Latifian S, Maiya A, Mebis J, Migliorati CA, Milstein DMJ, Murphy B, Raber-Durlacher JE, Roseboom HJ, Sonis S, Treister N, Zadik Y, Bensadoun RJ. Photobiomodulation therapy in management of cancer therapy-induced side effects: WALT position paper 2022. Front Oncol. 2022 Aug 30;12:927685. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2022.927685. PMID: 36110957; PMCID: PMC9468822.

Pereira, S.T., Silva, C.R., Nuñez, S.C. and Ribeiro, M.S. (2021), Safety and Clinical Impact of a Single Red Light Irradiation on Breast Tumor-Bearing Mice. Photochem Photobiol, 97: 435-442. https://doi.org/10.1111/php.13338

Myakishev-Rempel M, Stadler I, Brondon P, Axe DR, Friedman M, Nardia FB, Lanzafame R. A preliminary study of the safety of red light phototherapy of tissues harboring cancer. Photomed Laser Surg. 2012 Sep;30(9):551-8. doi: 10.1089/pho.2011.3186. Epub 2012 Aug 1. PMID: 22853435; PMCID: PMC3423866.

Light therapy fast-tracks healing of skin damage from cancer radiation therapy

  • Light therapy may accelerate the healing of skin damage from radiation therapy by up to 50%.

 Yang, Kok Lee & Boon Yin, Khoo Yang KL, Khoo BY, Ong MT, Yoong ICK, Sreeramanan S. In vitro anti-breast cancer studies of LED red light therapy through autophagy. Breast Cancer. 2021 Jan;28(1):60-66. doi: 10.1007/s12282-020-01128-6. Epub 2020 Jul 11. PMID: 32654094.

  • LED red light has been reported to have many health benefits. The present study was conducted to characterise anti-proliferation properties of four LED red light wavelengths (615, 630, 660 and 730 nm) against non-triple negative (MCF-7) and triple negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer-origin cell lines. 
  • It has been shown by MTT assay that at 24 h post-exposure time point, only LED red light with wavelength 660 nm possessed anti-proliferative effects against both cell lines with 40% reduction of cell viability. The morphology of LED 660 nm irradiated cells was found flatten with enlarged cell size, typical characteristic of cell senescent. Indications of autophagy activities following the irradiation
    • an increase number of autophagosomes formation in LED 660 nm irradiated cells compared to control cells.
    • Electron dense bodies observed in these cells under TEM micrographs, leading to the conclusion that LED 660 nm irradiation promoted anti-proliferative activities through autophagy in breast cancer-origin cells.
    • Positive effects of LED-based radiation
      in cancer research with little health hazards being reported.
    • These findings have suggested that LED 660 nm might be developed and be employed as an alternative cancer treatment method in future.

Robijns J, Censabella S, Bulens P, Maes A, Mebis J. The use of low-level light therapy in supportive care for patients with breast cancer: review of the literature. Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Jan;32(1):229-242. doi: 10.1007/s10103-016-2056-y. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27539464.

Argenta PA, Ballman KV, Geller MA, Carson LF, Ghebre R, Mullany SA, Teoh DG, Winterhoff BJ, Rivard CL, Erickson BK. The effect of photobiomodulation on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: A randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. Gynecol Oncol. 2017 Jan;144(1):159-166. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2016.11.013. Epub 2016 Nov 22. PMID: 27887804. 

  • Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer therapy with few efficacious treatments.
  • PBM produced significant reduction in neuropathy symptoms.


Tafur J, Mills PJ. Low-intensity light therapy: exploring the role of redox mechanisms. Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Aug;26(4):323-8. doi: 10.1089/pho.2007.2184. PMID: 18665762; PMCID: PMC2996814.



Jackson, R. F., Dedo, D. D., Roche, G. C., Turok, D. I., & Maloney, R. J. (2009). Low-level laser therapy as a non-invasive approach for body contouring: A randomized, controlled study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 41(10), 799–809. doi:10.1002/lsm.20855 

  • Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial 
  • There were no negative findings.
  • n=67
  • Results: Participants in the treatment group demonstrated an overall reduction in total circumference across all three sites of 3.51 in. 
  • (P < 0.001) compared with control subjects who revealed a 0.684 reduction (P < 0.071745). Test group participants demonstrated a reduction of 0.98 in. (P < 0.0001) across the waist, 1.05 in. (P < 0.01) across the hip, and 0.85 in. (P < 0.01) and 0.65 in. (P < 0.01) across the right and left thighs from baseline to 2 weeks (end of treatment). 

McRae E, Boris J. Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. Lasers Surg Med. 2013 Jan;45(1):1-7. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22113. PMID: 23355338.

  • Participants were retrospectively assessed at an individual clinic in the United States.
  • Compared with baseline, a statistically significant 2.99 in. (7.59 cm) mean LOSS was observed at the post-procedure evaluation point (P < 0.0001). When analyzed individually, the waist, hips, and thighs each reported a statistically significant reduction of 1.12, 0.769, and 1.17, respectively.
  • There were no negative findings.
  • n=86


Cassano P, Petrie SR, Mischoulon D, Cusin C, Katnani H, Yeung A, De Taboada L, Archibald A, Bui E, Baer L, Chang T, Chen J, Pedrelli P, Fisher L, Farabaugh A, Hamblin MR, Alpert JE, Fava M, Iosifescu DV. Transcranial Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. The ELATED-2 Pilot Trial. Photomed Laser Surg. 2018 Dec;36(12):634-646. doi: 10.1089/pho.2018.4490. Epub 2018 Oct 20. PMID: 30346890; PMCID: PMC7864111.

  • Double-blind, sham-controlled study on the safety and efficacy [change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) total score at end-point] of adjunct t-PBM NIR, 823nm
  • t-PBM with NIR light demonstrated antidepressant properties with a medium to large effect size in patients with MDD.

Caldieraro MA, Cassano P. Transcranial and systemic photobiomodulation for major depressive disorder: A systematic review of efficacy, tolerability and biological mechanisms. J Affect Disord. 2019 Jan 15;243:262-273. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.09.048. Epub 2018 Sep 17. PMID: 30248638.

FERTILITY (Female and Male)

Ohshiro T. Personal Overview of the Application of LLLT in Severely Infertile Japanese Females. Laser Ther. 2012;21(2):97-103 doi:10.5978/islsm.12-OR-05.

Salman Yazdi R, Bakhshi S, Jannat Alipoor F, Akhoond MR, Borhani S, Farrahi F, Lotfi Panah M, Sadighi Gilani MA. Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. 2014 Jan;29(1):97-104. doi: 10.1007/s10103-013-1276-7. Epub 2013 Feb 14. PMID: 23407899.

  • Results showed that irradiating human sperm with low-level 830-nm diode laser can improve their progressive motility depending on both laser density and post-exposure time.
  • n=22

Wagner H, Cheng JW, Ko EY. Role of reactive oxygen species in male infertility: An updated review of literature. Arab J Urol. 2017 Dec 8;16(1):35-43. doi: 10.1016/j.aju.2017.11.001. PMID: 29713534; PMCID: PMC5922220.



Wunsch, Alexander, and Karsten Matuschka. “A controlled trial to determine the efficacy of red and near-infrared light treatment in patient satisfaction, reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, skin roughness, and intradermal collagen density increase.” Photomedicine and laser surgery vol. 32,2 (2014): 93-100. doi:10.1089/pho.2013.3616  

  • The treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, assessed skin roughness, and ultrasonographic measured collagen density. The blinded clinical evaluation of photographs confirmed significant improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control.
  • There were no negative findings.
  • n=136

Avci P, Gupta A, Sadasivam M, Vecchio D, Pam Z, Pam N, Hamblin MR. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2013 Mar;32(1):41-52. PMID: 24049929; PMCID: PMC4126803.


Bowen, Robert, Arany, Praveen R. e202200391. Use of either transcranial or whole-body photobiomodulation treatments improves COVID-19 brain fog. Journal of BiophotonicsVL  – 16. IS  – 8. SN  – 1864-063X 

Aguida B, Pooam M, Ahmad M, Jourdan N. Infrared light therapy relieves TLR-4 dependent hyper-inflammation of the type induced by COVID-19. Commun Integr Biol. 2021 Sep 15;14(1):200-211. doi: 10.1080/19420889.2021.1965718. PMID: 34552685; PMCID: PMC8451450.


de Matos BTL, Buchaim DV, Pomini KT, Barbalho SM, Guiguer EL, Reis CHB, Bueno CRS, Cunha MRD, Pereira ESBM, Buchaim RL. Photobiomodulation Therapy as a Possible New Approach in COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Life (Basel). 2021 Jun 18;11(6):580. doi: 10.3390/life11060580. PMID: 34207199; PMCID: PMC8233727. 


de Carvalho Pde T, Leal-Junior EC, Alves AC, Rambo CS, Sampaio LM, Oliveira CS, Albertini R, de Oliveira LV. Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain, quality of life and sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012 Nov 21;13:221. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-221. PMID: 23171567; PMCID: PMC3543348.

Yeh SW, Hong CH, Shih MC, Tam KW, Huang YH, Kuan YC. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pain Physician. 2019 May;22(3):241-254. PMID: 31151332.


Cassano P, Dording C, Thomas G, Foster S, Yeung A, Uchida M, Hamblin MR, Bui E, Fava M, Mischoulon D, Iosifescu DV. Effects of transcranial photobiomodulation with near-infrared light on sexual dysfunction. Lasers Surg Med. 2019 Feb;51(2):127-135. doi: 10.1002/lsm.23011. Epub 2018 Sep 17. PMID: 30221776; PMCID: PMC6382556.


Zhao J, Tian Y, Nie J, Xu J, Liu D. Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. J Athl Train. 2012 Nov-Dec;47(6):673-8. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-47.6.08. PMID: 23182016; PMCID: PMC3499892.


Gong L, Zou Z, Liu L, Guo S, Xing D. Photobiomodulation therapy ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by activating cytochrome c oxidase-mediated protein kinase B in muscle. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Mar 26;13(7):10015-10033. doi: 10.18632/aging.202760. Epub 2021 Mar 26. PMID: 33795530; PMCID: PMC8064177.


Morita H, Kohno J, Hori M, Kitano Y. Clinical application of low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT) for atopic dermatitis. Keio J Med. 1993;42(4):174-176. doi:10.2302/kjm.42.174

Kim YL, Lim HS, Lee SM. Effect of low-level laser intervention on dermatitis symptoms and cytokine changes in DNCB-induced atopy mouse model: A randomized controlled trial. Exp Ther Med. 2021 Nov;22(5):1196. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10630. Epub 2021 Aug 20. PMID: 34584541; PMCID: PMC8422383.

Yoon, Hye-Joon & Yoon, Jong-Sung & Kim, Deog-Gon & jin yong, Lee. (2009). The Effects of Low Level Laser Therapy on Decrease of Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms. The Journal of Korean Oriental Pediatrics. 23.


Oliveira CG, Freitas MF, de Sousa MVP, Giorgi R, Chacur M. Photobiomodulation reduces nociception and edema in a CFA-induced muscle pain model: effects of LLLT and LEDT. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2020;19(10):1392-1401. doi:10.1039/d0pp00037j


Agrawal T, Gupta GK, Rai V, Carroll JD, Hamblin MR. Pre-Conditioning with Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy: Light before the Storm. Dose-Response. October 2014. doi:10.2203/dose-response.14-032.Agrawal.


Pillai JK, Mysore V. Role of Low-Level Light Therapy (LLLT) in Androgenetic Alopecia. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2021;14(4):385-391. doi:10.4103/JCAS.JCAS_218_20

Mai-Yi Fan, Sabrina PhD*; Cheng, Yu-Pin MD†; Lee, Ming-Yung PhD‡; Lin, Sung-Jan MD, PhD*,§,‖,¶; Chiu, Hsien-Yi MD, PhD*,§,**. Efficacy and Safety of a Low-Level Light Therapy for Androgenetic Alopecia: A 24-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Self-Comparison, Sham Device-Controlled Trial. Dermatologic Surgery: November 2018 – Volume 44 – Issue 11 – p 1411-1420

  • RCT
  • n=100
  • 24 weeks of treatment
  • LLLT-treated scalp had significantly greater hair coverage (14.2% vs. 11.8%, p < .001).
  • Significant improvement from baseline in the LLLT group noted study investigators
    • hair thickness
    • hair count
    • hair coverage observed  on the treated side than in the sham light-treated side at the 12- and 24-week visits.
  • No serious adverse events were observed.


Figueiro Longo MG, Tan CO, Chan ST, et al. Effect of Transcranial Low-Level Light Therapy vs Sham Therapy Among Patients With Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9):e2017337. Published 2020 Sep 1. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17337


Nagy EN, Ibrahim FM, Jouda AA, Elsayed MM. The Effect of Laser Therapy Along With Mediterranean Diet Versus Mediterranean Diet Only on Older Adults With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Lasers Med Sci. 2021 Jul 24;12:e39. doi: 10.34172/jlms.2021.39. PMID: 34733762; PMCID: PMC8558722.


Oron A., Oron U., Chen J., Eilam A., Zhang C., Sadeh M., et al.. (2006). Low-level laser therapy applied transcranially to rats after induction of stroke significantly reduces long-term neurological deficitsStroke 37, 2620–2624. 10.1161/01.str.0000242775.14642.b8 

Huang N, Yao D, Jiang W, Wei C, Li M, Li W, Mu H, Gao M, Ma Z, Lyu J, Tong Z. Safety and Efficacy of 630-nm Red Light on Cognitive Function in Older Adults With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study. Front Aging Neurosci. 2020 May 21;12:143. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00143. PMID: 32528273; PMCID: PMC7253693.


Xu S, Cui K, Long K, Li J, Fan N, Lam WC, Liang X, Wang W. Red Light-Triggered Anti-Angiogenic and Photodynamic Combination Therapy of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2023 Sep 14:e2301985. doi: 10.1002/advs.202301985. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37705491.


Keszler A, Lindemer B, Weihrauch D, Jones D, Hogg N, Lohr NL. Red/near infrared light stimulates release of an endothelium dependent vasodilator and rescues vascular dysfunction in a diabetes model. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Dec;113:157-164. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.09.012. Epub 2017 Sep 19. Erratum in: Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Feb 1;131:443. PMID: 28935419; PMCID: PMC5699925.